Tätigkeiten als Herausgeber und als Gutachter

  • Mitglied des "Editorial Board", Futures & Foresight Science, seit 2020.
  • "Associate Editor", IEEE Transactions on Reliability, seit 2016.
  • "Associate Editor", International Journal of Performability Engineering, 2011-2015.
  • Gast-Herausgeber, IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, Sonderbereich zum Thema "Applied Software Aging and Rejuvenation", in Vorbereitung.
  • Gast-Herausgeber, Performance Evaluation, Sondernummer zum Thema "Software Aging and Rejuvenation", März 2013.
  • Gast-Herausgeber, Journal of Systems and Software, Sondernummer zum Thema "Software Dependability", September 2010.

  • ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (ACM JETC): 2012, 2013
  • Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry (ASMBI): 2011
  • Creativity and Innovation Management (CIM): 2021, 2022
  • Empirical Software Engineering (EMSE): 2016
  • European Journal of Health Economics (EJHE): 2014
  • Futures & Foresight Science (FFS): 2021, 2022
  • IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing (IEEE TDSC): 2005, 2006, 2015, 2016
  • IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing (IEEE TETC): 2022
  • IEEE Transactions on Reliability (IEEE TR): 2005, 2006, 2011, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2019, 2020
  • IEEE Transactions on Services Computing (IEEE TSC): 2013
  • IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (IEEE TSE): 2005, 2008, 2014, 2018, 2019
  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics – Part C: Applications & Reviews (IEEE TSMCC): 2009
  • IET Software: 2020
  • Information Sciences (INS): 2013, 2014, 2021, 2022
  • International Journal of Computer Systems Science and Engineering (IJCSSE): 2011
  • International Journal of Critical Computer-Based Systems (IJCCBS): 2009
  • International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks (IJDSN): 2005, 2006
  • International Journal of Machine Learning and Cybernetics (JMLC): 2010
  • International Journal of Performability Engineering (IJPE): 2012
  • International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering (IJRQSE): 2002
  • International Journal of Systems Science (IJSS): 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013
  • International Journal of Systems Science: Operations & Logistics (IJSS: O & L): 2015
  • Journal of Information Science and Engineering (JISE): 2014
  • Journal of King Saud University – Computer and Information Sciences (JKSUCIS): 2021
  • Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity (JOItmC): 2022
  • Journal of Systems and Software (JSS): 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2020
  • Performance Evaluation (PEVA): 2011, 2016
  • Reliability Engineering & System Safety (RESS): 2011, 2016, 2018
  • Security and Communication Networks (SCN): 2016
  • Software Quality Journal (SQJ): 2013
  • Software Testing, Verification and Reliability (STVR): 2012, 2013, 2014
  • Technology in Society (TECHIS): 2022

  • Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD): 2020
  • National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF): 2014, 2016
  • Science Foundation Ireland (SFI): 2004

  • 12th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2021), Wuhan, China, Oktober 2021
  • 11th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2020), Coimbra, Portugal, Oktober 2020
  • 2nd ISSAT International Conference on Data Science and Intelligent Systems (DSIS 2020), Miami, USA, August 2020
  • 10th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2019), Berlin, Deutschland, Oktober 2019
  • 2019 ACM Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems (RACS 2019), Chongqing, China, September 2019
  • 43rd IEEE International Conference on Computers, Software & Applications (COMPSAC 2019), Milwaukee, USA, Juli 2019
  • 34th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2019), Limassol, Zypern, April 2019
  • 9th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2018), Memphis, USA, Oktober 2018
  • 29th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2018), Memphis, USA, Oktober 2018
  • 2018 ACM Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems (RACS 2018), Honolulu, Hawaii, Oktober 2018
  • 42nd IEEE International Conference on Computers, Software & Applications (COMPSAC 2018), Tokio, Japan, Juli 2018
  • 33th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2018), Pau, Frankreich, April 2018
  • 9th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2017), Toulouse, Frankreich, Oktober 2017
  • 28th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2017), Toulouse, Frankreich, Oktober 2017
  • 2017 ACM Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems (RACS 2017), Krakau, Polen, September 2017
  • IEEE International Conference on Quality, Reliability & Security (QRS 2017), Prag, Tschechien, Juli 2017
  • 41st IEEE Computer Society International Conference on Computers, Software & Applications (COMPSAC 2017), Turin, Italien, Juli 2017
  • 7th International Workshop on Program Debugging (IWPD 2016), Ottawa, Kanada, Oktober 2016.
  • 8th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2016), Ottawa, Kanada, Oktober 2016
  • 27th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2016), Ottawa, Kanada, Oktober 2016
  • 10th EAI International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools (VALUETOOLS 2016), Taormina, Italien, Oktober 2016
  • 8th International Workshop on Reliable Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM 2016), Halmstad, Schweden, September 2016
  • 13th IEEE International Workshop on Software Cybernetics (IWSC 2016), Wien, Österreich, August 2016
  • 40th IEEE Computer Society International Conference on Computers, Software & Applications (COMPSAC 2016), Atlanta, USA, Juli 2016
  • 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Reliability and Security Data Analysis (RSDA 2016), Toulouse, Frankreich, Juni/Juli 2016
  • Fast Abstracts Track, 46th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2016), Toulouse, Frankreich, Juni/Juli 2016
  • 31th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2016), Pisa, Italien, April 2016
  • 7th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2015), Gaithersburg, USA, November 2015
  • 26th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2015), Gaitherburg, USA, November 2015
  • 2015 Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems (RACS 2015), Prag, Tschechien, Oktober 2015
  • 5th International Workshop on Reliable Networks Design and Modeling (RNDM 2015), München, Deutschland, Oktober 2015.
  • 17th IEEE International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC 2015), New York, USA, August 2015
  • 39th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2015), Taichung, Taiwan, Juli 2015
  • 30th ACM/SIGAPP Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC 2015), Salamanca, Spanien, April 2015
  • 7th International Conference on Dependability (DEPEND 2014), Lissabon, Portugal, November 2014
  • 5th International Workshop on Program Debugging (IWPD 2014), Neapel, Italien, November 2014
  • 6th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2014), Neapel, Italien, November 2014
  • 25th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2014), Neapel, Italien, November 2014
  • ACM International Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems (RACS 2014), Towson, USA, Oktober 2014
  • 38th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2014), Västeras, Schweden, Juli 2014
  • 11th IEEE International Workshop on Software Cybernetics (IWSC 2014), Västeras, Schweden, Juli 2014
  • 9th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2014), Paris, Frankreich, Juli 2014
  • 6th International Conference on Future Computational Technologies and Applications (FUTURE COMPUTING 2014), Venidig, Italien, Mai 2014
  • 10th International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2014), Chamonix, Frankreich, April 2014
  • 19th IEEE Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC2013), Fast Abstracts Track, Vancouver, Kanada, Dezember 2013
  • 5th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2013), Pasadena, USA, November 2013
  • 24th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2013), Pasadena, USA, November 2013
  • ACM 2013 International Conference on Reliable And Convergent Systems (RACS 2013), Montreal, Kanada, Oktober 2013
  • 8th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2013), Regensburg, Deutschland, September 2013
  • 10th IEEE International Workshop on Software Cybernetics (IWSC 2013), Kyoto, Japan, Juli 2013
  • 37th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2013), Kyoto, Japan, Juli 2013
  • 8th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2013), Rom, Italien, Juni 2013
  • 5th International Conference on Future Computational Technologies and Applications (FUTURE COMPUTING 2013), Valencia, Spanien, Mai/Juni 2013
  • 9th International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2013), Lissabon, Portugal, März 2013
  • 4th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2012), Dallas, USA, November 2012
  • ACM 2012 Research in Applied Computation Symposium (RACS 2012), San Antonio, USA, Oktober 2012
  • 7th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2012), Prag, Tschechien, August 2012
  • 4th International Conference on Future Computational Technologies and Applications (FUTURE COMPUTING 2012), Nizza, Frankreich, Juli 2012
  • 35th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2012), Izmir, Türkei, Juli 2012
  • 9th IEEE International Workshop on Software Cybernetics (IWSC 2012), Izmir, Türkei, Juli 2012
  • 7th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2012), Stuttgart, Deutschland, Mai/Juni 2012
  • 8th International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2012), St. Maarten, Niederländische Antillen, März 2012
  • 3rd International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2011), Hiroshima, Japan, Dezember 2011
  • ACM 2011 Research in Applied Computation Symposium (RACS 2011), Miami, USA, November 2011
  • 3rd International Conference on Future Computational Technologies and Applications (FUTURE COMPUTING 2011), Rom, Italien, September 2011
  • 4th International Conference on Dependability (DEPEND 2011), Nizza/Saint Laurent du Var, Frankreich, August 2011
  • 6th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2011), Wien, Österreich, August 2011
  • 35th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2011), München, Deutschland, Juli 2011
  • 8th International Workshop on Software Cybernetics (IWSC 2011), München, Deutschland, Juli 2011
  • 3rd Workshop on Proactive Failure Avoidance, Recovery and Maintenance (PFARM 2011), Hongkong, China, Juni 2011
  • 1st International Workshop on Principles and Practices of Autonomic Software Systems (PASS 2011), Busan, Südkorea, Mai 2011
  • 7th IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2011), Venedig, Italien, Mai 2011
  • 6th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications (ICDT 2011), Budapest, Ungarn, April 2011
  • 6th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2011), St. Maarten, Niederländische Antillen, März 2011
  • 2nd International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2010), San Jose, USA, November 2010
  • 2nd International Conference on Future Computational Technologies and Applications (FUTURE COMPUTING 2010), Lissabon, Portugal, November 2010
  • International Conference on Reliable and Autonomous Computational Science 2010 (RACS 2010), Atlanta, USA, Oktober 2010
  • 12th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS 2010), New York, USA, September 2010
  • 34th Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2010), Seoul, Südkorea, Juli 2010
  • 2nd Workshop on Proactive Failure Avoidance, Recovery and Maintenance (PFARM 2010), Chicago, USA, Juni 2010
  • 5th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications (ICDT 2010), Athen, Griechenland, Juni 2010
  • 5th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2010), Barcelona, Spain, May 2010
  • IEEE 24th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Application (AINA 2010), Perth, Australia, April 2010
  • 6th IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2010), Cancun, Mexico, March 2010
  • 5th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2010), Krakow, Poland, February 2010
  • 11th International Symposium on Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems (SSS 2009), Lyon, France, November 2009
  • 4th International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2009), Venice, Italy, May 2009
  • 5th IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2009), Valencia, Spain, April 2009
  • 4th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2009), Fukuoka, Japan, March 2009
  • 3rd International Conference on Internet Monitoring and Protection (ICIMP 2008), Bucharest, Romania, June/July 2008
  • 3rd International Conference on Digital Telecommunications (ICDT 2008), Bucharest, Romania, June/July 2008
  • 3rd International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2008), Barcelona, Spain, March 2008
  • International Conference on Advance Computing 2008 (ICAC 2008), Chikhli, India, February 2008
  • International Conference on Advances in Computer Vision and Information Technology (ACVIT-2007), Aurangabad, India, November 2007
  • 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Dependable Autonomic and Secure Computing (DASC-07), Columbia, USA, September 2007
  • 1st International Conference on Global Defense and Business Continuity (ICGD&BC 2007), Silicon Valley, USA, July 2007
  • 3rd IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2007), Athens, Greece, June 2007
  • 2nd International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (AReS 2007), Vienna, Austria, April 2007
  • 12th IEEE International Symposium Pacific Rim Dependable Computing (PRDC 2006), Riverside, USA, December 2006
  • 17th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2006), Raleigh, USA, November 2006
  • 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Dependable Autonomic and Secure Computing (DASC-06), Indianapolis, USA, September/October 2006
  • 2nd IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2006), Silicon Valley, USA, July 2006
  • IEEE International Workshop on Trusted and Autonomic Computing Systems (TACS-06), Vienna, Austria, April 2006
  • 1st IFIP International Workshop on Trusted and Autonomic Ubiquitous and Embedded Systems (TAUES-05), Nagasaki, Japan, December 2005
  • 1st IEEE International Workshop on Reliability and Autonomic Management in Parallel and Distributed Systems (RAMPDS-05), Fukuoka, Japan, July 2005

  • Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS): 2015
  • IFIP WG 7.3 International Symposium on Computer Performance, Modeling, Measurements and Evaluation (PERFORMANCE): 2005
  • International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA): 2010
  • International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN): 2005, 2007
  • International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies (PDCAT): 2009
  • International Conference on the Quantitative Evaluation of Systems (QEST): 2005
  • International IEEE Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM): 2009
  • International IEEE Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE): 2005, 2007
  • International Service Availability Symposium (ISAS): 2005
  • International Symposium Pacific Rim Dependable Computing (PRDC): 2005

Vorsitz bei Konferenzen

  • 14th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2022), Charlotte, USA, October/November 2022
  • 7th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2015), Gaithersburg, USA, November 2015

  • 8th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2016), Ottawa, Canada, November 2016
  • 4th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications (ICDT 2009), Colmar, France, July 2009
  • 1st International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2008), Redmond, USA, November 2008
  • 4th IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Autonomous Systems (ICAS 2008), Gosier, Guadeloupe, March 2008

24th IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2013), Pasadena, USA, November 2013

  • 4th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2012), Dallas, USA, November 2012
  • 3rd International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2011), Hiroshima, Japan, Dezember 2011

  • 6th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2014), Neapel, Italien, November 2014
  • 2nd International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2010), San Jose, USA, November 2010

5th International Workshop on Software Aging and Rejuvenation (WoSAR 2013), Pasadena, USA, November 2013

  • 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computer Vision and Information Technology (ACVIT-2009), Aurangabad, Indien, Dezember 2009
  • International Conference on Advances in Computer Vision and Information Technology (ACVIT-2007), Aurangabad, India, November 2007

Lehre

  • Lecturer, spring 2012, spring 2013, spring 2014, spring 2015, spring 2016, spring 2017, spring 2018, spring 2019, spring 2020, spring 2021, spring 2022
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics in co-operation with the Department of Information Systems III, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Undergraduate-level course „Software Reliability“ (4 CP/5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, fall 2017
    VWA Nürnberg
    Undergraduate-level course „Statistics II: Inductive Statistics“
  • Lecturer, spring 2016, spring 2017
    VWA Nürnberg
    Undergraduate-level course „Statistics I: Descriptive Statistics“
  • Lecturer, spring 2015, spring 2016
    Chair of Statistics and Empirical Economic Research, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Microeconometrics“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, spring 2014, fall 2016
    VWA Nürnberg
    Undergraduate-level course „Business Mathematics with Excel“
  • Lecturer, spring 2014, spring 2016
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Multivariate Time Series Analysis“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, fall 2012
    Chair of Statistics and Empirical Economic Research, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Empirical economic research II“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, fall 2012
    GfK Chair of Marketing Intelligence, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level SPSS courses „Marketing research: Data analysis“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, June/July 2011, July 2011, November 2011, January 2012, April 2012, June 2012, November 2012, January 2013, June 2013, December 2013, May 2014, November 2014, May 2015, November 2015, April 2016
    FAU Graduate School
    Two-day workshops „Multivariate statistical methods“ for PhD students enrolled at Friedrich-Alexander University
  • Lecturer, fall 2010, fall 2011, fall 2012, fall 2013
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Multivariate Time Series and Structural Models I“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, June 2010
    VWA Nürnberg, Steinbeis University Berlin
    Undergraduate-level course „Introduction to Business Statistics“
  • Lecturer, spring 2009, spring 2010, spring 2011, spring 2012, fall 2013, fall 2014
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Undergraduate-level course „Applied Analysis of Time Series and Financial Markets Data“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, spring 2009, spring 2010, spring 2011
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics in co-operation with the Department of Information Systems III, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Software Reliability“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, spring 2009
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics in co-operation with the Department of Information Systems II and the Department of Communications Science, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level interdisciplinary seminar „Classical and New Media in Political Marketing“
  • Lecturer, fall 2008, fall 2009
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Multivariate Analysis of Time Series and Financial Markets Data“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, spring 2008
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Univariate Analysis of Time Series and Financial Markets Data“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, fall 2007, fall 2008, fall 2009, fall 2010, fall 2011, fall 2012, fall 2013, fall 2014, fall 2015
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Graduate-level course „Data Analysis“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, fall 2007, spring 2008
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Undergraduate-level exercise course „Descriptive and Inferential Statistics“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, spring 2007
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    Graduate-level course „Software Reliability Engineering“
  • Lecturer, fall 2004, fall 2005, fall 2006
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
    Guest lectures within Prof. Trivedi’s course „Mathematical Methods for Systems Analysis I“
  • Lecturer, spring 2001, spring 2002, spring 2003, spring 2004
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Undergraduate-level exercise course „Inferential Statistics“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Lecturer, fall 1997, fall 2001, fall 2002, fall 2003
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Undergraduate-level exercise course „Descriptive Statistics“ (2 CP/2.5 ECTS)
  • Teaching assistant, spring 1998
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Helped graduate students solve problems related to the application of statistical software package S-Plus
  • Teaching assistant, spring 1997
    Chair of Statistics and Econometrics, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Undergraduate-level tutorial course „Inferential Statistics“
  • Teaching assistant, fall 1996, spring 1997
    Department of Information Systems, Friedrich-Alexander University, Nürnberg, Germany
    Prepared teaching materials for graduate-level courses „Operating Systems“ and „HTML“